Past simple tense To talk about past activities a) Lan took Maryam to Hoan Kiem_Lake. b) The girls visited Ho Chi Minh’s Mausoleum. With wish a) I wish you had a longer vacation. b) I wish I were older. c) They wish they stayed in Hue.3. Direct and reported speech• Changes in tenseDirect speechReported speechpresent simplepast simpleI walk. I walked. present progressive past progressive I am walking. I was walking. past simple past simple/past perfect I walked. I walked. / I had walked.*past progressive I was walking.past progressive/past perfect progressive I was walking. / I had been walking.”present perfect I have walked.past perfect I had walked.present perfect progressive I have been walking.past perfect progressive I had been walking.past perfect I had walked.past perfect I had walked.past perfect progressive I had been walking.past perfect progressive I had been walking.* optional, dependent on contextNOTE:The past perfect tenses had + past participle, had + been + V-ing will be introduced in grades 10, 11 and 12.a) Aunt Xuan said she was happy to see you, b) Ba told Liz that he had been there before.7-TA9(ST-B• Reported questionsGraтara) She asked me what my name was. b) She asked me where I lived. c) She asked me if I spoke any other languages.d) She asked me if I liked pop music.e) She asked me who taught me English.f) She asked me how I learned English.4. Here and now words in reported speechDirect speechReported speechTIME o then / immediately today that day tonight that night tO?O**OMy the next / following day yesterday the day before / the previous day last night the night before two days ago two days before / earlier PLACE here there DEMONSTRATIVE HEADS this that these those a) “I’ll go to Hue tomorrow.”Miss Chi said she would go to Hue the following day. b) “I’m having a wonderful time here.”Mai said she was having a wonderful time there.955. Passive voiceBe + past participleModal verbs + be + past participle a) Rice is grown in tropical countries. b) Traditionally, the ao dai was frequently worn by both men and women. c) Jean clothes were made completely from cotton. d) The food has been cooked. e) Five million bottles of champagne will be produced next year. f) This exercise must be done carefully. g) The problem can be solved easily.6. GerundsGerunds after some verbs Verbs such as enjoy, hate, like, love,… can be followed by a gerund.a) In VietNam people love reading newspapers and magazines. b) She enjoys cooking on weekends. c) You like watching sports, don’t you? d) Ba hates waking up early.7. Tag questionsa) You like watching Sports, don’t you, Trung? b) You don’t like foreign films, do you? c) You have read this article on the website, haven’t you? d) Baird produced the first TV pictures in 1926, didn’t he?8. Modals with if We can join an if clause to a main clause which contains a modal verb. The modal verb gives more information about the outcome relating to ability, certainty, permission, obligation, and/or necessity. a) If you want to improve your English, we can help you. b) If you want to get good grades, you must study hard. c) If you don’t pay in advance, you must give us a 10 percent deposit.Graтar9. Conditional sentences: type 1 if +present tense, will + verb a) If you can’t find your place, I will help you get there with this map. b) If we work hard, we’ll make this beach a clean and beautiful place again. c) If the rice paddies are polluted, the rice plants will die. 10. Conditional sentences: type 2 ifth past tense, would/could/might + verb a) If you saw a UFO, what would you do? b) If you were on board now, you would experience those marvelous things. c) What would you do if you met an alien from outer space?11. Relative clauses- Relative pronounsDefining and Defining non-defining people who SUBJECT that things which le who(m) OBJECT peop that a things which hose h POSSESSIVE P'” WIOS Wn OSC things whose of which whose of which* The possessive relative pronouns will be learned more intensively in theupper grades. a) Tet is a festival which occurs in late January or early February. b) Family members who live apart try to be together at Tet. c) To the one whose feelings for me are so strong that the word love can’tdescribe them. d) He is a considerate and generous man who is loved not only by his family but also by all his friends.e )Viet Nam, which is in south-east Asia, exports rice. Neil Armstrong, who first walked on the moon, lived in the USA.f)97Types of relative clausesThere are two types of relative clauses: defining and non-defining.Defining g) Tornadoes are funnel-shaped storms which pass overland below a thunderstorm.h) The typhoon may damage the water pipes which supply our home.Non-defining i) Mount Pinatubo, which is a volcano in the Philippines, erupted in 1991.j) Ninety percent of earthquakes occur around the Pacific Rim, which is known as the “Ring of Fire”.12. Adjectives Adjective + that clauseThis structure is used with adjectives that refer to feelings or certainty. The word that does not always have to be included.Some of the adjectives that can be used in this structure are: afraid, angry, bad, certain, disappointed, glad, grateful, happy, helpful, hopeful, important, lucky, pleased, possible, sad, sorry, sure, thankful, true, wrong. a) I’m disappointed that people have spoiled this area. b) We are pleased that you got in touch.13. Adverb clauses * Adverb clauses of result a) Everyone felt tired and hungry, so they sat down under the tree and had a Snack. b) The Parkers are nice so Van feels like a member of their family. * Adverb clauses of reason a) Because pollution is something that other folk do, we’re just enjoying Outb) Unfortunately my company does not produce recycled paper since it is more expensive to make than regular paper.Adverb clauses of concession a) Thu Ha is not satisfied with her preparation for Tet, even though she has decorated her house and made plenty of cakes. b) Although we don’t have a Mother’s Day in Viet Nam, Dad and I have special gifts and parties for my mom every year on the 8th of March. c) Many tourists enjoy festivals in VietNam though they do not understand Vietnamese culture very much.Prepositions of time: up to, till,… a) He will stay there till the beginning of October. b) In the afternoon, he feeds the chickens and collects their eggs.c) Mr. Thanh leaves Ha Noi at 2 pm.